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The Mahavamsa

The Great Chronicle of Lanka
from 6th Century BC to 4th Century AD

Translated from Pali
by Wilhelm Geiger



IN the eighteenth year (of the reign) of king Dhammasoka, the great Bodhi-tree was planted in the Mahameghavanarama. In the twelfth year afterwards died the dear consort of the king, Asamdhimitta, the faithful (believer) in the Sambuddha In the fourth year after this the ruler of the earth Dhammäsoka raised the treacherous Tissarakkhä to the rank of queen. In the third year thereafter this fool, in the pride of her beauty, with the thought: 'Forsooth, the king worships the great Bodhi-tree to my cost!' drawn into the power of hate and working her own harm, caused the great Bodhi-tree to perish by means of a mandu-thorn. In the fourth year after did Dhammasoka of high renown fall into the power of mortality. These make up thirty-seven years.

But when king Devanampiyatissa, whose delight was in the blessing of the true doctrine, had brought to completion in seemly wise his undertakings in the Mahävihära, on the Cetiya-mountain and also in the Thuparama, he asked this question of the thera who had converted the island, who was skilled in (answering) questions: 'Sir, I would fain found many viharas here; whence shall I get me the relics to place in the thupas?'

'There are the relics brought hither by Sumana, with which he filled the bowl of the Sambuddha and which were placed here on the Cetiya-mountain, O king. Have these relics placed on the back of an elephant and brought hither.' Thus addressed by the thera he brought thus the relics hither. Founding vihäras a yojana distant from one another he caused the relics to be placed there in the thupas, in due order. But the bowl that the Sambuddha had used the king kept in his beautiful palace and worshipped continually with manifold offerings.

The (vihära that was built) in the place where the five hundred nobles dwelt when they had received the pabbajja from the great thera,' was (named) Issarasamanaka. That (vihara that was built) where five hundred vessas dwelt, when they had received the pabbajja from the great thera, was (called) in like manner Vessagiri. But as for the grotto inhabited by the great thera Mabinda, in the vihära built upon the mountain, it was called the' Mahinda-grotto'.

First the Mahavihara, then the (monastery) named Cetiya vihara, third the beautiful Thuparama, which the thüpa (itself) preceded, fourth the planting of the great Bodhi-tree, then fifth the (setting up) in seemly wise (of the) beautiful stone pillar which was intended to point to the place of the thupa, on the place where the Great cetiya (afterwards) was, and also the enshrining of the Sambuddha's collar-bone relic, sixth the Issarasamana(vihara), seventh the Tissatank, eighth the Pathamathupa, ninth the (vihära) called Vessa(giri), then that pleasant (nunnery) which was known as the Upasika(vihara) and the (vihara) called the Hatthalhaka, those two convents as goodly dwellings for the bhikkhunis; and (furthermore) for the accepting of food by the brotherhood of bhikkhus when they were visiting the dwelling of the bhikkhunis (called) Hatthalhaka(vihara), the refectory called Mahäpäli, easy of approach, beautiful, stored with all provisions and provided with service; then lavish gifts, consisting of the needful utensils for a thousand bhikkhus, (which things he gave) on the pavarana-day, every year; in Nagadipa the Jambukolavihara at this landing place, the Tissamahävihära and the Pacinarama: these works, caring for the salvation of the people of Lañkä, Devanampiyatissa, king of Lañkä, rich in merit and insight, caused to be carried out, even in his first year, as a friend to virtue, and his whole life through he heaped up works of merit. Our island flourished under the lordship of this king; forty years did he hold sway as king.

After his death, his younger brother since there was no son, the prince known by the name UTTIYA held sway piously as king. But the great thera, Mahinda, who had taught the peerless doctrine of the Master, the sacred writings, the precepts of righteousness and the higher perfection, full excellently in the island of Lanka, (Mahinda) the light of Lanka, the teacher of many disciples, he who, like unto the Master, had wrought great blessing for the people, did, in the eighth year of king UTTIYA, while he, being sixty years old,' was spending the rain season on the Cetiya-mountain, pass, victorious over his senses, into nibbana, on the eighth day of the bright half of the month Assayuja. Therefore this day received his name.

When king UTTIYA heard this he went thither, stricken by the dart of sorrow, and when he had paid homage to the thera and oft and greatly had lamented (over him) he caused the dead body of the thera to be laid forthwith in a golden chest sprinkled with fragrant oil, and the well closed chest to be laid upon a golden, adorned bier; and when he had caused it then to be lifted upon the bier, commanding solemn ceremonies, he caused it to be escorted by a great multitude of people, that had come together from this place and that, and by a great levy of troops; commanding due offerings (he caused it to be escorted) on the adorned street to the variously adorned capital and brought through the city in procession by the royal highway to the Mahavihara.

When the monarch had caused the bier to be placed here for a week in the Panambamälaka with triumphal arches, pennons, and flowers, and with vases filled with perfumes the vihära was adorned and a circle of three yojanas around, by the king's decree, but the whole island was adorned in like manner by the decree of the devas and when the monarch had commanded divers offerings throughout the week he built up, turned toward the east in the Theränambandhamälaka, a funeral pyre of sweet smelling wood, leaving the (place of the later) Great thupa on the right, and when he had brought the beautiful bier thither and caused it to be set upon the pyre he carried out the rites of the dead.'

And here did he build a cetiya when he had caused the relics to be gathered together. Taking the half of the relics the monarch caused thupas to be built on the Cetiya-mountain and in all the vihäras. The place where the burial of this sage's body had taken place is called, to do him honour, Isibhumangana.

From that time onwards they used to bring the dead bodies of holy men from three yojanas around to this spot and there to burn them.

When the great theri Samghamitta, gifted with the great supernormal powers and with great wisdom had fulfilled the duties of the doctrine and had brought much blessing to the people, she, being fifty-nine years old, in the ninth year of this same king UTTIYA, while she dwelt in the peaceful Hatthalhaka-convent passed into nibbana. And for her also, as for the thera, the king commanded supreme honours of burial a week through, and the whole of Lanka was adorned as for the thera.

The body of the theri laid upon a bier did he cause to be brought when the week was gone by, out of the city; and to the east of the Thüpäräma, near the Cittisala (of later times) in sight of the great Bodhi-tree, on the spot pointed out by the theri (herself), he caused the burning to take place. And the most wise UTTIYA also had a thupa built there.

The five great theras also, and those theras too of whom Arittha was the leader, and many thousand bhikkhus who were freed from the asavas and also the twelve theris among whom Samghamitta stood highest, and many thousand bhikkhunis who were freed from the äsavas, who, endowed with great learning and deep insight had expounded the holy scripture of the Conqueror, the vinaya and the rest, fell, in time, into the power of mortality.

Ten years did king UTTIYA reign; thus is mortality the destroyer of the whole world.

A man who, although he knows this overmastering, overwhelming, irresistible mortality, yet is not discontented with the world of existence and does not feel, in this discontent, resentment at wrong nor joy in virtue that is the strength of the fetters of his evil delusion such an one is knowingly fooled.'

Here ends the twentieth chapter, called 'The Nibbana of the Thera', in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.

 Top of Page | Index
 Chapter 01 | Chapter 02 | Chapter 03 | Chapter 04 | Chapter 05 | Chapter 06 | Chapter 07 | Chapter 08 | Chapter 09 | Chapter 10 |
 Chapter 11 | Chapter 12 | Chapter 13 | Chapter 14 | Chapter 15 | Chapter 16 | Chapter 17 | Chapter 18 | Chapter 19 | Chapter 20 |
 Chapter 21 | Chapter 22 | Chapter 23 | Chapter 24 | Chapter 25 | Chapter 26 | Chapter 27 | Chapter 28 | Chapter 29 | Chapter 30 |
 Chapter 31 | Chapter 32 | Chapter 33 | Chapter 34 | Chapter 35 | Chapter 36 | Chapter 37

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last updated: 20-May-2003